Fetal Radiation Dose During Gestation Estimated on an Anthropomorphic Phantom for Three Generations of CT Scanners
AJR:196, May 2011
Anthony G.Gilet, Jared M. Dunkin Thomas J. Fernandez Terry M. Button Nancy E. Budorick
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to determine fetal dose during four different stages of pregnancy for both pulmonary CT angiogram and abdominal and pelvic CT examination on 4-, 16-, and 64-MDCT scanners measured in an anthropomorphic phantom simulating a pregnant patient.
MATERIALS AND METHODS. Pulmonary angiograms and abdominal and pelvic studies were performed on a phantom on 4-, 16-, and 64-MDCT scanners. Fetal positioning and mean fetal depth were determined using data from ultrasound examinations of a large cohort of patients. Scans were performed for early pregnancy and for 10, 18, and 36 weeks. Gestational age, fetal dose, and entrance skin exposure were measured.
RESULTS. When constant parameters were used for pulmonary CT angiograms, the fetal radiation dose was not significantly associated with gestational age. For abdominal examinations, the 64-MDCT scanner imparted a 20% higher dose during the third trimester than did the other scanners. When scanning parameters were kept constant between machines, gestational age and fetal dose were not significantly different. However, when the manufacturer-recommended protocols for pregnant patients were used, the dose was significantly higher in the third trimester on the 64-MDCT scanner.
CONCLUSION. The 64-MDCT scanner is the most dose-efficient machine when the fetus is outside the direct scan volume, as in the case of pulmonary angiograms. For abdominal examinations, the 64-MDCT scanner imparted the highest fetal dose. This finding is attributable to the increased tube current used to penetrate the larger amount of soft tissue in late pregnancy. Abdominal shielding may reduce fetal dose without affecting diagnostic ability.